KINGDOM EUMYCOTA - The True Fungi
"The Ascomycetes" -
REFER TO CHAPTER 5 IN THE TEXTBOOK.
Many but not all asexually-reproducing
fungi (ANAMORPHS - without evidence of sexual reproduction) are likely derived
from or associated with the Phylum Ascomycota. Due to their
uncertain taxonomic placement, these are place in the
"The Deuteromycetes" or "Imperfect Fungi" -
REFER TO CHAPTER 7 IN THE TEXTBOOK.
In addition to your textbook, check out:
Members of the Phyla Ascomycota and Deuteromycota produce many plant diseases
(e.g., powdery mildews, anthracnose, wilts, rots, leaf spots, ergo of rye, apple
scab, chestnut blight, etc.) and some animal and human mycoses (e.g.,
candidiasis, ringworm infections, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, toxic black
mold syndrome, etc.). Most species and groups are symbiotic, commensalistic, or
- Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes produce septate hyphae.
- Deuteromycetes (produce no sexual stage, only asexual structures - e.g.,
conidia, chlamydospores, arthrospores, sterile mycelium - no spores at all).
- Conidia may be formed in a number of different ways (conidiogenesis)
and possess many morphologies.
- Coelomycetes are anamorphic fungi in which the conidia are
produced within a protective structure, an acervular or pycnidal
conidioma. A conidioma is a multihyphal structure producing conidia.
- Hyphomycetes are conidial anamorphs producing exposed
conidiophores, not enclosed in any protective structure.
- Ascomycetes (produce a sexual stage [i.e., bags of spores - ascus with
ascospores] + [asexual spores - sometimes?].
- The Holomorph (whole fungus) = Anamorph (asexual reproduction)
+ Teleomorph (sexual reproduction).
- Sexual Reproduction defines whether a fungus belongs to the phylum Ascomycota or not.
- An ascus (pl. asci) usually contain 4, 8 or multiples of 4 or 8
sexual spores. These can be associated with no other fungal tissue
(i.e., naked asci) or with other fungal tissue to form a fruit body,
also called an ascocarp or ascoma (i.e., cleistothecium, perithecium, or
- Asci may be (1) unitunicate-Operculate, unitunicate-inoperculate,
prototuncate, and bitunicate
- The following animation is found at
The development of an ascus and the discharge of the ascospores
LINKS: CHECK THESE OUT!
PHYLUM ASCOMYCOTA (A Brief Overview)
- Classification -based largely on morphology, anatomy, and life history.
- For yeasts, physiological characters are especially important (ability
to ferment specific sugars) is useful in delimiting species.
- Sexual reproduction results in the formation of a sac called an ascus
(plural - asci) which contains 4, 8, or multiples of 4 or 8 spores.
The spores are called ascospores.
- Asci may be naked (not surrounded by fungal tissue or an ascoma (an
ascocarp having a spore-bearing layer of cells or a hymenium)
- ascocarp - mature fruiting body of an ascomycetous
- an ascocarp having the spore-bearing layer of cells (the
hymenium) on a broad disklike receptacle
- a cuplike ascocarp in many lichens and
- closed spore-bearing structure of some
fungi (especially Aspergillaceae and Erysiphaceae) from
which spores are released only by decay or disintegration
- Seven major classes in the Phylum Ascomycota. Classes 3-7 are referred
to as filamentous ascomycetes.
- Archiascomycetes (Taphrina,
- Hemiascomycetes Order
Saccharomycetales - "the yeasts"
- Plectomycetes (Order Eurotiales
and related fungi- e.g., perfect stages Neosartoria and
Eurotium for anamorphic species of Aspergillus and
Eupenicillium and Talaromyces for anamorphic species of
- Pyrenomycetes (Sordaria,
Neurospora, Xylaria, Claviceps, Cordyceps,
powdery mildew fungi - Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Uncinula,
- Discomycetes (Peziza,
Morchella, Urnula, Sclerotinia, Monilinia)
(commensals on the exoskeletons of arthropods)
- Loculoascomycetes (Peidraia;
perfect stages of Alternaria and Bipolaris)
Class Archiascomycetes (Taphrina, Schizosaccharomyces,
- members of this group are saprobic and parasitic
- members of the group lack ascogenous hyphae and ascocarps
- chitin present in cell walls of some species
- Plant parasites (e.g., Taphrina deformans, the cause of peach
leaf curl). Reproduce through ascospores or conidia and give rise to
yeast-like colonies. Presence of fungus causes rapid cell division and cell
enlargement and resulting in distortion of leaves.
- Schizosaccharomyces - the "split yeast", cytokinesis distributes
the cytoplasm equally between two cells.
- Pneumocystis carinii - associated with a virulent form of
pneumonia in immunocompromised humans. Originally thought to be a protistan.
- unicellular or very limited mycelium -no ascocarp or ascogenous hyphae
usually 4-8 ascospores develop
- Meiosis and ascosporogenesis.
- asci are thin walled and may release their ascospores by deliquescing or
- asexual reproduction through mitosis and unequal cytokinesis ==> budding
-as buds break off, scars are left behind on the somatic or mother cell -
- common on sugary plant exudates (e.g., slime fluxes in tree wounds and
the nectar of flowers).
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae and other species are useful in baking,
brewing, distilling, and related industries including fuel ethanol
production and supplements to food (riboflavin and citric acid).
- Candida albicans and other Candida species can cause
candidiasis or yeast infections of mucocutaneous tissue ==> thrush,
vaginitis. Common malady in immunocompromised or debilitated individuals,
after exposure to antibiotics, or a consequence of pregnancy.
Class Pyrenomycetes (kernel or pit of fruit fungi)
- simplest members of ascocarp-producing ascomycetes
- asci typically thin-walled, globose to pyriform, evanescent (ephemeral)
- asci scattered at various levels within the ascocarp, not forming a
hymenium, arising from ascogenous hyphae of various lengths ramifying
through the ascocarp
- ascospores unicellular -ascocarp typically a cleistothecium (no regular
opening) when one is present -cleistothecial peridium present and varying in
- various types of anamorphs and conidial forms -opens by (a) exposure to
weather and (b) internal pressure
- saprobes to parasites -examples of fungi in this group include perfect
stages Neosartoria and Eurotium for anamorphic species of
Aspergillus and Eupenicillium and Talaromyces for
anamorphic species of Penicillium.
- Aspergillus flavus = > mycotoxin, aflatoxin (potentially
cancer-causing in humans, and deadly to poultry =>turkey X-disease)
- Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, and A. fumigatus
may cause Aspergillosis (lung infection and/or allergic reaction in the
lung) and fungus balls in lungs and other body parts.
- Aspergillus niger can be used for commercial production of enzymes
(e.g., amylase) and various metabolites (e.g., citric acid).
- Penicillium roquefortii is used in the production of blue
cheese - cow's milk and Roquefort cheese - ewe's milk. P.
camembertii or P. caseiolum are used in the production of
Camembert, Brie, and other cheeses.
- Penicillium chrysogenum, common source of antibiotic
penicillin; P. griseofulvum yields the antibiotic griseofulvin,
used to fight skin-related fungal infections.
- Check out this link on
- dermatophytes or certain pathogenic ringworm fungi or keratinophilic
fungi, such as species of Microsporum and Trichophyton.
Ringworm or dermatophytosis = tinea infections.
- dermatophytes based on their habit t==> geophilic (soil-loving),
zoophilic (animal-loving) and anthropophilic (man-loving) species.
- trends in evolution of some species moving from saprobic to
- Blastomycosis (restricted to eastern part of North America) =
Ajellomyces dermatitidis (anamorph Blastomyces dermatitidis),
Histoplasmosis (conidia common in guano-enriched soil) => Ajellomyces
capsulatus (anamorph Histoplasma capsulatum), Coccidioidomycosis
=> Coccidioides immitis (arthrospores common in soils in the Sonoran
life zone) all cause lung diseases resembling tuberculosis, may become
disseminated and systemic and be potentially fatal.
- Dimorphic fungi (converted from mycelial form to yeast phase) => in
culture, by elevating temperature from room temperature to 37oC
or in host, within tissues of the human body.
Class Discomycetes (refer to
- largest fungal class, more than 6000 representatives are known. - (Sordaria,
Neurospora, Xylaria, Claviceps, Cordyceps,
powdery mildew fungi (Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Uncinula,
- ascocarp usually a perithecium or, occasionally, cleistothecial
- unitunicate asci (one layered)
- asci may or may not be forcibly discharged their salvo of spores
- Powdery Mildew Fungi - members of the Order Erysiphales ==> OBLIGATE
PARASITES (not culturable) and these cause diseases collectively referred to
as powdery mildews ==> upper side of leaves look as though it has been
dusted with flour. -Conidia borne in chains on a conidiophore. -Fungus
produces haustoria in epidermis of leaves, penetrates no further. "Powdery
mildews" are only skin deep! Haustorium anchors the fungus to the leaf
surface and absorbs food.
- Conidia are generally colorless, powdery appearance due to presence
of mycelium near end of summer.
- cleistothecia begin to form on superficial mycelium brown or black
specks on leaves.
- Claviceps purpurea and ergot of rye
- primarily on rye (sometimes wheat, barley, oats and wild grasses.
- actual damage to crop is low -fungus that causes ergot causes the
seeds or grains to be replaced with dark-purple to black sclerotia.
- toxic substances produced in sclerotia including LSD (lysergic acid
diethylamide) and other alkaloids.
- symptoms of eating contaminated grain referred to as Ergotism, ergot
poisoning or St. Anthony's Fire. Symptoms include, vomiting, feelings of
intense heat or cold, pain in muscles of the calf, yellow color in face,
lesions on the hand and feet, diarrhea, impairment of mental functions,
hysteria and hallucinations (possibility exists that women accused of
witchcraft and their accusers in Salem, Mass were suffering from ergot
poisoning, accounting for their bizarre behavior), convulsions, gangrene
in limbs, spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, and death. Out breaks
of ergot poisoning is not common in modern time most recent outbreak was
in Ethiopia in the late 1970's
- Some ergot alkaloids have medicinal value. Used medically to
stimulate the uterus to contract to initiate child birth, an to hasten
the return of the uterus to normal size after childbirth. Treatment of
certain peripheral circulatory disorders, and treatment of migraine
headaches. Causal agent of ergot of rye is Claviceps purpurea. Fungus
overwinters as sclerotia ==> In the spring sclerotia germinate and
stroma on a stalk is produced. Ascospores are shot out or extruded in a
viscous fluid. Conidia are dispersed by wind and insects. Infects ovary
on wild grass plant or cultivated cereal grain
- Fungus causes asexual spores (conidia) to be extruded from flower
(honeydew) which is spread by insects. Developing seed replaced with
- For more information visit:
- Hymenium partially covers the surface of an open ascocarp ==> "cup
- Apothecium (come in many different shapes, sizes, colors, textures
- Apothecium consists of a hymenium (with parahpyses and asci),
subhymenium or hypothecium, different layers of excipulum.
- Asci are operculate (with a lid) or inoperculate (slit or pore present
or no opening).
- Ascocarp Development is (a) cleistohymenial (closed throughout formation
of ascocarp and ascospore development ==> many of these are hypogeous) or
(b) eugymnohymenial (opened from the very beginning of ascocarp development
or (iii) paragymnohymenial closes during early development and open at time
of ascospore maturity.
- Vegetative structures - sclerotia or stromata possess a hard rind-like
covering, many include host tissue.
- Sclerotium gives rise to mycelium (vegetative growth) or apothecium.
Sclerotium is a hardened, resistant structure capable of overwintering
or surviving unfavorable conditions. Usually determinant in size and
round in shape.
- Stroma are indeterminate in size, irregular in shape and often
paddle-like or flattened.
- Discomycetes can be divided into three separate groups
- Inoperculate discomycetes (the Helotiales is the largest order
within this group)
- Lecoranalean lichen-forming discomycetes (visit
for some great photographs of lichens)
- Operculate forms of Pezizales and their relatives, some of which
lack an operculum.
- Helotiales - asci are inoperculate with an apical pore - majority are
- Monilinia fructicola, the cause of brown rot of peaches.
Fungus overwinters as a stroma or mummy from which the apothecium arises
in the spring.
- Pezizales (large order and diverse group, operculate asci, generally
saprobic, vary in shape, color and size).
- Fruit bodies or ascocarps are generally common on forest floors in
the spring. Group includes Urnula (devil's urn), Sarcoscypha
(scarlet cups), Peziza, Morchella, Helvella,
Gyromitra. Spores are shot directly into air.
- Tuberaceae - approximates 140 species "truffles" - mycorrhizal and
hypogeous. Hunted using dogs/pigs trained for task. Hypogeous - buried below
ground or leaf-litter. Ascospores are spiny and not dispersed into air.
Ascocarps rot or are dug up by animals and spores released in this manner.
Ascocarps emit a strong odor and are highly prized as food.
Class Laboulbeniomycetes - "Laboul" -
Class Loculoascomycetes -
- minute insect parasites -approximately 0.1 to 1.0 mm in size -arthropod
are parasitized by these fungi (i.e., roaches, beetles, army ants, mites and
- highly host specific (often found on only one type of host), and
position specific (often found on only one part of the host's body)
- Often spread from insect to insect through sexual contact. -Thallus form
on outside of body, penetrates the chitinous skeleton and forms haustorium
in the integument.
- Fungi have not been cultured.
- Haustorium, foot cell and receptacle (bears sterile hair like
appendages, bears male and female reproductive structures), which becomes
- Thalli may be monoeceious (both male and female reproductive structures
on the same thallus) -Dioecious
- male and female reproductive structures separate but thalli closely
- Male gametes are spermatia formed by antheridia
- Thaxter - late 1890's described life cycle of labouls. Famous mycoman!
- Stroma in which asci are produced
- Bitunicate ascus (2 walled ascus)
- saprophytes/parasites (examples include Peidraia; perfect stages of
Alternaria and Bipolaris)
- Ascostromata form locules not separated by a distinct wall form the
stromal tissue pseudothecium (hard to distinguish from a perithecium)
Alcoholic Fermentation by Yeast:
Rootbeer, Ginger Ale, Beer, Wine, Industrial Ethanol, and other forms
In addition to the lecture notes that were
provided in class, check out the following web sites:
Drugs and Food Facts about Fungi
- Fungal Drugs:
- Blue cheese, soy sauce, miso, and other products:
Molds can be associated with allergies (to the spores), mycotoxins that
contaminate food, disease (depending on the fungus involved infections can be
superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, mucocutaneous, respiratory, systemic,
and/or opportunistic. Infections may be acute (rapid onset) or chronic
(prolonged over time).
The following is
a compilation of mycotoxins and fungi that pose a health hazard to animals and
humans that consume contaminated foodstuffs. However you should be aware that
this page lists only some of the major types of toxicoses caused by the
secondary metabolites of fungi, and therefore is incomplete.
Fusarium toxins - produced by several
Zearalenones (produced in molded maize)
(associated with maize contamination)
- Toxic to swine and causes abnormalities and
degeneration of the genital system - also known as "estrogenic
syndrome". Male swine show signs of feminization, while female swine
are more susceptible to sterility and spontaneous abortion; when
offspring are produced, these are often small and weak.
Trichothecenes (most common form is called
vomitoxin or deoxynivalenol)
- causes equine leukoencephalomalacia (brain
damage and death in horses)
- pulmonary edema (inflammation of lung tissue)
- cancer-causing in humans?
- associated with neural tube defects in human
- commonly associated with species of
Fusarium found in cereal grains (particularly corn)
- Swine and other animals (especially livestock)
suffer symptoms of inactivity, degeneration of the cells of the bone
marrow, lymph nodes, and intestines. Leads to diarrhea, hemorrhaging
(bleeding) and death.
- One form causes alimentary toxic aleukia (ATA)
in humans. This results in abnormalities in blood system. ATA was
widespread in rural areas in Siberia (1941-47). Toxins build-up in grain
(millet) allowed to over winter in the field. Symptoms include fever,
headache, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Hemorrhaging in various organs
and parts of body worsens as disease progresses and death is not
- Fusarium Scab in barley (and wheat) is
becoming an increasing problem, especially those grains used to make
malt for beer production.
- Another fungus, Stachybotrys charatum
is a cellulose decomsoing hyphomycete and can contaminate hay and fodder
with trichothecenes used to feed horses. Also it is know to cause
hemorrhagic syndrome in the lungs of humans who breath in the spores,
especially in the very young by inhibiting normal development of
capillaries in the lungs. This is sometimes referred to as TOXIC BLACK
MOLD, and is sometimes found on wet wood and paper surfaces in homes.
and ergot of rye
- primarily on rye (sometimes wheat, barley, oats
and wild grasses).
- actual damage to crop is low
- fungus that causes ergot causes the seeds or
grains to be replaced with dark-purple to black sclerotia.
- toxic substances produced in sclerotia including
LSD (d-lysergic acid diethylamide) and other alkaloids.
- symptoms of eating contaminated grain referred to
as St. Anthony's Fire, ergotism, or ergot poisoning. Symptoms include,
vomiting, feelings of intense heat or cold, pain in muscles of
the calf, yellow color in face, lesions on the hand and feet, diarrhea,
impairment of mental functions, hysteria and hallucinations (possible that
women accused of witchcraft because of bizarre behavior in Salem, Mass were
suffering from ergot poisoning), convulsions, gangrene in limbs, spontaneous
abortion in pregnant women, and death. Out breaks of ergot poisoning is not
common in modern time most recent outbreak was in Ethiopia in the late
- Some ergot alkaloids have medicinal value. Used
medically to stimulate the uterus to contract to initiate child birth, an
hasten the return of the uterus to normal size after childbirth. Treatment
of certain peripheral circulatory disorders, and treatment of migraine
- Causal agent of ergot of rye is Claviceps
- Fungus over winters as sclerotia ==> In the spring
sclerotia germinate and stroma on a stalk is produced. Ascospores are shot
out or extruded in a viscous fluid. Conidia are dispersed by wind and
insects. Infects ovary on wild grass plant or cultivated cereal grain
- Fungus causes asexual spores (conidia) to be
extruded from flower (honeydew) which is spread by insects. Developing seed
replaced with sclerotium.
- Control of Ergot:
- depends entirely on cultural and sanitary
- use only clean seed or seed free form ergot
should be sown seed can be freed from sclerotia by soaking in a solution
of about 18 kg salt per 100 liters of water for 3 hours and floating off
- sclerotia do not survive for major than a year
and do not germinate if buried in the ground Therefore deep ploughing or
crop rotation with a noncereal for a year helps eliminate the pathogen
from a field.
- Wild grasses should be mowed or grazed before
flowering to prevent sclerotia formation and avoid poisoning of
- Benomyl (a fungicide) sprays may be helpful if
applied before and after flowering
- Fusarium roseum appears to be a
hyperparasite of the ergot fungus. Potential biocontrol agent.
- For more information and photographs on ergot check
Toxins produced by species of
Aspergillus and Penicillium growing on Animal and Human Food
produced by species of Aspergillus, especially A. flavus on
peanuts, maize, and other foodstuffs - CLICK HERE!
- Ochratoxins cause degenerate and necrosis
of the liver and kidney in domestic animals. These may persist in the meat
of animals fed contaminated grain and be transmitted through the food chain
- Tremorgenic toxins cause marked body
tremors and excessive discharge of urine, followed by convulsive seizures
that often end in death. Some species of Aspergillus and
Penicillium growing on refrigerated foods (e.g., cheese), grains, and
cereal products. Sheep, horses and cows seem to be the the domestic animals
most commonly affected by tremorgenic toxins. Humans can also suffer this
- Patulin is found to occur naturally in
foodstuffs such as fruit or juices made with fruit partly infected with
Penicillium, in naturally molded bread and bakery products, and in most
commercial apple products. Patulin may constitute a serious heath risk for
domesticated animals and humans. Symptoms of poisoning include, edema and
bleeding in lungs and brain, damage to kidneys, paralysis of motor nerves,
- Yellowed-rice toxins, primarily
citreoviridin, citrinin, and luteoskyrin, are all produced by species of
Penicillium growing in stored rice, barley, corn, and dried fish. These
toxicoses are associated with various diseases, including cardiac beri-beri,
nervous and circulatory disorders, and degeneration of the kidneys and
- Affects cattle and horses feeding on plants of the
perennial grass tall fescue infected systemically with the fungus
Acremonium (an endophyte).
- Horses eating tall fescue plants infected with the
fungus show only reproductive disorders.
- Cattle feeding on such plants, in addition to
reduced calving and lowered milk production, show reduced weight gains,
elevated body temperature, and rough hair coat; feet or other body
extremities may develop gangrene and drop off "fescue foot".
Bibliography on Fungal
Mycotoxins in Food
Agrios, G. N. (1997). Plant
Pathology. 4th ed. Academic Press: San Diego.
Leslie, J. F., W. F. O. Marasas, G. S.
Shephard, E. W. Sydenham, Stockenstrom, and P. G. Thiell. (1996). Duckling
toxicity and the production of fumonisin and moniliformin by isolates in the
A and F mating populations of Gibberella fujikuroi (Fusarium
moniliforme). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 62: 1182-1187.
Moore-Landecker, E. (1990)
Fundamentals of the Fungi. 3rd. ed. Prentice Hall: Englewood Cliffs.
Rippon, J. W. (1982). Medical
Mycology: The Pathogenic Fungi and The Pathogenic Actinomycetes. 2nd
For Additonal Information on Mycotoxins visit the
FUNGAL PHYSIOLOGY - Brief Overview
Monitoring Growth Rate
Patterns of Growth
Log Phase - A period after
inoculation before cell division occurs
Acceleration Phase - transition
between dormancy and active growth
For phases #1 and #2
-enzymatic adaptation to
Exponential Phase - cell division
reaches a uniform rate
Deceleration Phase - decrease in
Stationary Phase - no additional
Decline Phase - decrease in number
of viable cells
Fungi absorb small molecules (sugars, amino acids)
directly from medium.
If large molecules present, then fungus must be able to
secrete extracellular enzymes to break it down before absorption takes
If enzyme not available, no food can be utilized.
Enzyme induction - enzyme produced in response to the
Catabolite repression - fungus may utilize one substrate
over another (glucose over starch).
Translocation of food and nutrients is by bulk flow.
Intake of solutes causes the intake of water through osmosis, which
moves the food from the source to a sink. A sink is created when
food is utilized or converted from glucose to a polysaccharide (e.g.
natural substrates (dung, wood, grain)
natural media --> infusions of material (malt extract,
completely synthetic (consisting of chemicals)
semisynthetic medium (natural products + chemicals)
Essential macronutrients include, carbon, nitrogen,
hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium.
About 1/2 dry weight of fungus is carbon.
provide energy for cell
carbon obtained from organic compounds or CO2 from air
fungi vary in their ability to utilize monosaccharides,
disaccharides, polysaccharide, and organic acids.
lignin - a polymer of alcohol derivatives (breakdown
produces almost no energy).
Nitrogen is necessary for production of amino acids,
proteins, and nucleotides.
organic nitrogen==> NH4+==>
Sulfur requirement can be satisfied by adding SO4
(e.g. Mg SO4) to culture medium..
Sulfur is found amino acids (cysteine, cystine, methionine, vitamins
(thiamine,& biotin), antibiotics (penicillin), and other compounds.
Phosphorous is important for production of ATP in
respiration and carbohydrate metabolism and in nucleotides.
Magnesium-activation of enzymes (e.g., PGI and PGM).
Potassium's role is unknown, but vital. Probably
associated with ion pumps in cell membranes.
Some fungi synthesize all the vitamins they require,
while others are auxotrophic (vitamins must be supplied).
auxotrophic-usually used in context of any substance
required by a fungus due to a mutation
most common deficiency are for thiamine and biotin.
in some cases the presence of a vitamin may not be
necessary, but it will enhance growth if present.
Physical Requirements Of Growth
Mesophile -optimum temperature range is usually
between 15˚ to 30˚C (min. is 0 to 5˚C, maximum is 35˚ to 40˚C)
Psychrophiles-grow at cooler temperatures optimum is
10˚C or below.
Thermophilic fungi-growth optimum of 40˚C or above
(min. temp. is 20˚C or above, max. may be higher than 50˚C)
pH-hydrogen ion concentration fungi usually grow
best at a pH lower than 7.
Ammonium Salt- as NH4+
is used up the medium will become more acidic.
NaNO3 with time
medium will become more alkaline due to release of ammonium.
maximum growth is achieved at high relative humidity 95%
growth declines or ceases 80% to 85% RH, although some
fungi can grow in RH As low as 65%.
osmotic concentrations of solutes in water (salts &
sugars) effects growth.
some fungi are adapted to solutions high in salt or
in some fungi low levels of U.V. light exposure for
short periods of time induce sporulation.
some fungi require light to form normal fruit bodies and
to sporulate. For example: Flamulina velutipes or enoke mushrooms
(long stipe if growth in dark).
strong light generally inhibits growth.
Aeration- O2 and CO2.
All fungi are obligates aerobes, some are facultative anaerobes, none are
known to be obligate anaerobes.
page is maintained by Dr. Martin Huss. Last updated:
November 5, 2007